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When to Use Tax Form 1099-R: Distributions From Retirement

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When to Use Tax Form 1099-R: Distributions From Retirement

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Form 1099-R is used to report distributions of retirement benefits, such as pensions, annuities, or other retirement plans. Variations of Form 1099-R include:

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Form CSA 1099R, Form CSF 1099R, and Form RRB-1099-R.

Most public and private pension plans that are not part of the civil service use the standard 1099-R form. If you received $10 or more in distributions from your retirement plan, you should receive a copy of Form 1099-R, or some variation.

Pension and Annuity Payments

Retirement benefits are basically an extension of compensation arranged by employers and employees. Income tax on most retirement plan contributions is deferred, meaning that no income tax is paid on the contributions until the taxpayer withdraws the funds.

Pension and annuity distributions are generally issued to retired employees, disabled employees, and in some cases to beneficiaries of deceased employees.

If no after-tax contributions are made to the pension plan prior to distribution, the full amount is usually included in taxable income. However, if after-tax contributions are made to an annuity or pension, usually only a portion of the distribution will be included in taxable income. be taxed.


Rollovers transfer retirement funds from one custodian to another, usually without paying tax on the transferred funds.

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Direct Rollover is determined on Form 1099-R by using the G or H assignment code in Box 7. An indirect rollover occurs when the account owner owns a retirement fund and re-deposits it into another qualified retirement account.

To avoid taxation of funds as income and possible early distribution penalties, funds must generally be transferred to a qualifying account within 60 days of distribution. Generally, you can only make one indirect rollover in a 12-month period.

Funds distributed directly to taxpayers are generally subject to 20% federal income tax withholding. This means the taxpayer must provide additional funds to cover the 20% withheld so that the rollover amount equals the total distribution. When the rollover meets all IRS guidelines, the distribution is not taxed; however, the amount must still be reported on your tax return.

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Some companies allow employees the option of taking loans from pension plans. In most cases, these loans are repaid with interest and are not considered distributions. Form 1099-R is issued when a taxpayer fails to make required loan payments on time.

When this happens, the outstanding amount is considered a distribution and is usually reported on Form 1099-R with the distribution code L. These distributions are considered taxable income and may be subject to early distribution penalties.

early distribution

Most benefits paid before the taxpayer reaches age 59 1/2 are considered early distributions. An additional 10% federal tax is imposed on early distributions to deter misuse of retirement funds. Additionally, some states impose state penalties on these early distributions.

Unless there are exceptions, additional tax applies to the entire taxable amount of the distribution. Some common exceptions include:

Disability, death, IRS levy, and medical expenses in excess of 7.5% of AGI also qualify for the exception if payments are made to an alternate payee under a qualifying family relationship (divorce) order.

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